Nowe modele Consul i Zephyr mają samonośne nadwozia i niezależne zawieszenia przednich kół na kolumnach typu Mc Pherson. Jest pierwsze tego rodzaju zawieszenie na świecie, zapewniające niespotykany dotychczas komfort jazdy. Consul napędzany jest silnikem czterocylindrowym o pojemności 1,5 litra a zephyr ma jednostkę sześciocylindrową 2,3 litra o mocy 69 KM. Zephyr kosztuje w Anglii 608 funtów.
The two-door Anglia (E494A) continue unchanged.
Ford Prefect Model E493A is continued from 1949 with no changes. It had been given a restyled front end early in that year and have an 1172-cc 30-bhp L-head Four engine with three-speed gearbox.
Ford Pilot Model E71A Saloon is also a carry-over from the previous year. It is powered by a 3.6-litre V8 engine. Pilot V8 Estate Car with all-metal panelled body by Hawes & Son Ltd was introduced in 1950 and produced only in small numbers.
The all new Consul and Zephyr Six has been introduced at Earls Court in October. Both are of entirely new integral chassisless construction with MacPherson strut independent front suspension and the over-head valve engines a complete break with Ford tradition.
Ford Perfect in the USA.
The Motor YEAR BOOK, 1951 FORD CONSUL AND ZEPHYR SIX
New in appearance, the 1951 Fords make technical innovations, not merely for the sake of novelty but as a means to combine typically Ford low-cost motoring with new luxury and performance. Past practice, both of the Ford Motor Company and of other manufacturers, has obviously been studied closely, but wherever necessary both have been abandoned in favour of completely fresh ideas.
Two new cars are offered, a 1½-litre "four" and a 2¼-litre "six", both powered by modern short-stroke engines which promise to be economical and durable as well as lively. To venture estimates of probable performance, the Zephyr Six can be expected to exceed 80 m.p.h. by a considerable margin, to have at least equal top-gear acceleration to the 30 h.p. V8 Pilot, yet to give 25 m.p.g. or better fuel consumption. The Consul, on the other hand, is intended for those who want to be able to count on 30 m.p.g. fuel consumption, but should also be capable of excellent top-gear acceleration and of speeds in excess of 70 m.p.h.
Both cars are based upon fundamentally similar four-door saloon bodies of welded-up integral steel construction, no separate chassis frame being used in either case. The base structure of floor and body side rails is reinforced by U-section pressings above the rear axle, and has box-section forward extensions which vary in length as between four- and six-cylinder cars: in each instance, large side pressings forming the door frames, and another combining the windscreen frame and roof panel, provide reinforcement which gives complete rigidity to the centre-section of the car, whilst fixed panels alongside the o.h.v. engines and a bulkhead encircling the radiator extend this reinforcement to the extreme front of the car. Without excessive weight, expensive complication, or obstructed access to vital mechanical parts, immense structural strength and rigidity have thereby been attained.
For use in conjunction with this structure, a unique independent front-wheel springing system has been evolved which, breaking right away from orthodox practice, is in fact notably straight-forward. First and foremost, it is a system which takes the principal loads directly, the weight of the car's front end being supported via rubber-insulated duplex conical steering swivel bearings on a flexible coil spring at each side of the car, these coil springs encircling telescopic guides on each of which a front wheel is mounted. Thus, any rise and fall of either wheel as it follows a rough road surface is absorbed directly by the coil spring: the telescopic guide, whose primary purpose is to maintain the wheel upright, is also a double-acting hydraulic shock absorber of very generous dimensions, controlling the motion of the flexible spring.
Just below stub-axle level, the base of the telescopic sliding member is held by a ball-and-socket joint which takes the main drag and lateral forces involved in braking and cornering. This ball joint rises and falls with the wheel, but is located laterally and fore-and-aft by what is, in effect, a transverse wishbone member swept back at an angle of approximately 25 degrees. One arm of this wish-bone is an I-section transverse forging, rubber-bushed at its pivot on to a tubular-frame crossmember; the other is a backswept arm of circular section, actually the end of a rubber-mounted torsion anti-roll bar.
The layout of the complete assembly may be observed from the perspective drawings on page 24, which will be understood clearly when it is realised that spring deflection causes the anti-roll stabiliser to bend as well as to twist. Permitting slight track variations which large-section tyres should absorb readily, this novel suspension layout gives good roll resistance, is light and mechanically simple in relation to its strength and range of movement, and should transmit the minimum of road noise or shock.
Steering layout for use in conjunction with the Ford I.F.S. system is based upon use of a worm-and-peg steering gear of 14 : 1 ratio mounted to give transverse movement of the drop-arm, which latter is linked to a parallel-moving idler arm on the opposite side of the car. From points on the link between steering and idler arms, track-rod halves of a length chosen to suit the suspension geometry transmit steering movements independently to the two front wheels.
Correct matching of front and rear suspension designs is vital to the attainment of good riding and controllability, and on their new models the Ford Motor Company have adopted semi-elliptic leaf rear springs, of slightly higher natural frequency than the front springs, and provided with inserts between the leaf tips: control is provided by double-acting hydraulic shock absorbers.
Power units are rubber-mounted at three points in the cars, two mounting points alongside the engine being provided on the tubular cross-member mentioned in connection with the front suspension, the third at a cross-member passing below the tail of the gearbox. The mounting at the latter point has been specially designed to give controlled flexibility, absorbing any vertical or lateral engine vibration yet providing positive fore-and-aft location of the complete power unit.
Totally new, the four-cylinder Consul and six-cylinder Zephyr engines both have identical cylinder dimensions, the stroke in each case being slightly smaller than the bore. Thus, horse-power ratings are 16 and 24 respectively, despite swept volumes of only 1½- and 2¼-litres, allowing the desired peak power outputs to be attained at piston speeds far below 2,500 feet per minute, with in consequence the prospect of very moderate rates of wear and of fuel consumption.
Features of both engines have been kept similar wherever convenient, the iron cylinder block and crankcase casting providing in each case for complete water jacketing around every cylinder. In accordance with the manufacturers' specialised technique, the counterbalanced crankshafts are castings, as are the duplex chaindriven camshafts, intermediate bearings after each pair of cylinders being used.
Overhead valvegear is a novelty on a Ford car, but apart from other virtues it provides accessibility suited to this particular installation. Each cylinder has a combustion chamber of wedge form, spread of combustion from a long-reach 14 mm. sparking plug at the base of the wedge towards the apex giving a controlled rate of burning and consequently freedom from roughness or pinking. The valves are set in a single line, slightly inclined towards the nearside of the engine, and are closed by single springs whose coils are unequally spaced as a precaution against possibilities of surge. Pushrods, and rockers with the usual screw-and-locknut adjustment at the pushrod end, form the transmitting linkages between the harmonic cams and the valves.
Details of the engine include steel connecting rods with pinch-bolt little ends, autothermic split-skirt pistons carrying two compression rings and an oil scraper ring apiece, and thermostat-controlled coolant circulation by a belt-driven centrifugal water impeller. Full pressure lubrication of main, big-end and valvegear bearings is provided by an oil pump in the sump, mounted on the same skew-geardriven shaft as the ignition distributor, there being a full-flow lubricant filter. Fuel is drawn from the rear tank by a camshaft-driven diaphragm pump, in unit with which is a vacuum pump provided to ensure continuous screen-wiper operation even during full throttle driving. Unusual manifolding arrangements have been adopted on the two engines, particularly in respect of elimination of the orthodox exhaust manifold. A straight pipe is held by clamps against the side of the cylinder head, ports in the exhaust pipe and the head registering with one another, and the exhaust offtake curving away from the front of the pipe to the silencer. An (eternal cast aluminium alloy induction manifold feeds mixture to siamesed inlet ports from a manual-choke downdraught carburetter, below which heating is provided by conduction through a thick section of the high-conductivity aluminium from the exhaust pipe. Unusual means have been adopted to secure even distribution of mixture on the six-cylinder engine, and so to permit the use of economically weak fuel : air ratios. With the particular object of ensuring that excess fuel does not pass into cylinders one and six at the expense of numbers two and five, the inlet manifold branches are formed internally into something in the nature of a screw thread, designed so that in conjunction with the 90-degree bend, it will swirl the charge and give even mixture distribution. In unit with each engine is mounted a single plate clutch, controlled from the clutch pedal by a hydraulic hook-up such as is used in the braking system, fluid from the master cylinder operating a slave piston, push-rod, and rocker beam, the actual clutch withdrawal bearing being a ball-race. Also in the same unit is assembled a three-speed all-helical gearbox, with baulkring synchro-mesh mechanism to ensure silent engagement of the upper two ratios. The gearbox layshaft runs on needle roller bearings, selector mechanism at the side of the box is linked very directly to the steering-column gear lever, and a tail extension incorporates the splined propeller shaft sliding joint. Full hydraulic Girling braking is used on the new cars, sturdy brake drums of 9-in. internal diameter being accommodated within the broad-rim 13-in. wheels with their Firestone or Goodyear tyres. Two leading shoes are used in each front drum, putting the required emphasis on front-wheel braking, and mechanical parking linkage is incorporated in the rear brakes. Full justice cannot be done within available space to the bodywork and equipment of such mechanically original cars as the new Fords, but these details will be fully appreciated by intending buyers. Moderate in overall height but with low floor levels, the new Ford bodies make the utmost use of their 64-in. overall width. Prominent internal features are the instruments grouped in front of the driver, the use of transparent plastic control knobs in a manner hitherto associated with expensive luxury cars, and the bench-type tubular-framed adjustable driving seat. Hinged ventilation panels are fitted on the front doors, and fresh air ducts which lead from the front of the car into the body are arranged so that they may be linked to the interior heating system which is an optional extra. Electrical equipment is planned around a 12-volt generator, inbuilt headlamps and separate parking lamps being provided. Instruments comprise the speedometer, ammeter and fuel contents gauge, plus warning lamps for oil pressure, dynamo charge, traffic signals and headlamp high-beam, and there are ash-trays and sun vizors fitted as standard equipment. Only part of one side of the roomy luggage locker is occupied by the spare wheel and tyre.
INGENUITY: The widely-spaced pivots for taking stress direct to the hull of the car, characteristic of the new Ford i.f.s, lay-out are clearly shown here. Note how one element fulfils the dual put-pose of bottom link and anti-roll bar.
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